SPI : Serial Peripheral Interface

The serial peripheral interface provided in the ATMEGA16/32 allows a high-speed synchronous data communication channel with other devices.The relevant pins on the ATMEGA are :

1. MOSI : Master Out,Slave In :

Pin B,5

This line is used by the master to send out data to the slave.The Master always initiates any communication.

2. MISO : Master In,Slave Out :

Pin B,6

This line is used by the slave to send data to the master.

3. SCK : Serial Clock :

Pin B,7

This is the serial clock generator. Communication takes place only when the clock is working.The clock starts a cycle when the master initiates communication.

4. (~SS): Slave Select :
Pin B,4

The slave will respond only if the Slave Select line is pulled low.If not pulled low,the chip will not read data even if keeps on receiving clock pulses.The Master pulls the Slave select line high again at the end of the data transfer to synchronise the slave.

Connections :

Master ——————————————> Slave

MOSI ——————————————> MOSI

SCK ——————————————> SCK

~SS ——————————————-> ~SS

MISO <—————————————— MISO

Data Flow :

The SPI supports a full duplex operation, which means communication can take place both ways simultaneously, i.e. data can be sent on one line and received on another line simultaneously.

When two-way communication is desired, it is best to follow the following method.
1. Write Data to the SPDR (SPI Data Register)
2. Wait till the transmission is complete. You can do this either by polling a flag or by using interrupts.
3. Read the SPSR (SPI Status Register) and then the SPDR immediately after that, in that order, if you are using the polling method. Just reading the SPDR is enough if you are using the interrupt example.

This will prevent any accidental loss of data.

This can be done safely even with the slave, since the data which has been queued up in the SPDR will not be transmitted unless the Master initializes communication. However, iteration-based loops cannot be used in the case of the slave to send data, since it is unsure when the Master will initiate communication and so the data would keep on updating in the SPDR without being sent. It is thus advisable to use the interrupt method in case a transmission by the slave is desired.

Modes of Operation :

Click here to view the modes of operation.

Control registers :

• Bit 7 – SPIE : SPI Interrupt Enable

This bit causes the SPI interrupt to be executed if SPIF bit in the SPSR Register is set and if
the global interrupt is enabled.

• Bit 6 – SPE : SPI Enable

1 —-> SPI Enabled
0 —-> SPI Disabled

• Bit 5 – DORD : Data Order

If DORD = 1 , the LSB of the data word is transmitted first.
If DORD = 0 , the MSB of the data word is transmitted first.

• Bit 4 – MSTR : Master/Slave Select

MSTR = 0 —-> Slave Mode
MSTR = 1 —-> Master Mode

If SS is configured as an input and is driven low while MSTR is set, MSTR will be cleared,
and SPIF in SPSR will become set. MSTR will then have to be set again manually to re-enable SPI Master mode.

• Bit 3 – CPOL : Clock Polarity

CPOL = 1 —-> SCK is high when idle
CPOL = 0 —-> SCK is low when idle

• Bit 2 – CPHA : Clock Phase

The settings of the Clock Phase bit (CPHA) determine if data is sampled on the leading (first) or
trailing (last) edge of SCK.

• Bits 1, 0 – SPR1, SPR0 : SPI Clock Rate Select 1 and 0
These control the SCK rate of the Master device and have no effect on the Slave. The relationship between SCK and the Oscillator Clock frequency (fosc) is shown in the following table:

Status Register :

• Bit 7 – SPIF : SPI Interrupt Flag

This flag is set when a serial transfer is complete. An interrupt is generated if SPIE in
SPCR is set and global interrupts are enabled. If ~SS is an input and is driven low when the SPI is in Master mode, this will also set the SPIF Flag. SPIF is cleared by hardware when executing the corresponding interrupt routine or it can be manually cleared by first reading the
SPI Status Register with SPIF set, then accessing the SPI Data Register (SPDR).

• Bit 6 – WCOL : Write COLlision Flag

The WCOL bit is set if the SPI Data Register (SPDR) is written during a data transfer. The
WCOL bit (and the SPIF bit) are cleared by first reading the SPI Status Register with WCOL set,
and then accessing the SPI Data Register.

• Bit 5..1 – Res : Reserved Bits

• Bit 0 – SPI2X : Double SPI Speed Bit
When this bit is written to one the SPI speed (SCK Frequency) will be doubled when the SPI
is in Master mode . This means that the minimum SCK period will be two CPU
clock periods, as opposed to the minimum of 4 in normal mode. When the SPI is configured as Slave, the SPI is only guaranteed to work at fosc/4 or lower.

The SPI interface on the ATmega16 is also used for program memory and EEPROM download-
ing or uploading.

Sample code:

Click here to view sample code to setup and perform SPI communication in the master.
The code to setup the slave is pretty simple and can be found in the ATMEGA16 Datasheet on Page No. 139

Resources :

1. ATMEGA16 Datasheet
2. Modes of Operation
3. Sample Code

A Parliament of another sort (more practical too)

Disclaimer : Before you read on, be aware that these opinions are not my own but rather of a personality imagined up by a warped mind. I am not responsible for any emotional trauma or distress arising out of reading this article and I write this for the sole purpose of imaginative humour. You may however thank me if you find it enjoyable.


There are 3 broad categories of people and each of these categories forms a parliamentary party :


Also known as the cool ones, these guys currently run the affairs (literally and otherwise). They like to be called “playas” and would enjoy nothing more than chilling out with a beer at some groovy discotheque. They understand little of what each of the other parties ( geeks, nerds,gals etc.) are upto but they more than make up for it by their diplomacy.There is a continuous power struggle going on between members of the Ruling Party and the Third Front (Gals) as they each threaten to disrupt proceedings. The relationship between these two parties is bitter sweet, with each soliciting each other’s support in times of crisis as well threatening to take off the legs of the chair in relatively peaceful times.

2.The Geeks (OPPOSITION) :

These are the intellectually superior class , but they often lack common sense. They are unable to attain success mainly because of their fanatical involvement in their own affairs or showing support/opposition to one another rather than gang up on the Ruling Party members. It has been well documented that most of the Opposition members have had “homely” ties with the Ruling Party members. The Opposition members perpetually endeavour to solicit the support of the Third Front, but results are generally disappointing because of their lack of diplomacy and the fact that they do not take out the Third Front leaders out to dinner as often as they would like.

3.The Gals (The Third Front) :

These are the game changers. One moment they support you, the other they don’t. Members of the Third Front have been known to cause the downfall of many a great leader. They command respect from both the Ruling Party ( mainly because of their threats to withdraw support) as well as the Opposition ( which is forever pining for their support). Their moods fluctuate predict unpredictably, which is one of the sources of their power. That their egos must be satisfied is an undeniable fact. One known way of doing this is by granting them positions of power (no matter how frivolous they sound).

Besides these, there is an emerging party of the minorities ( the nerds, the misfits etc.) but we’ll come to that some other time.

Note : The Third Front and The Ruling Party both claim to be the ruling party, the Ruling Party because they have a strong hold and the the Third Front because their support is absolutely essential for running a Government.

P.S. This post has been possible because of an intellectually stimulating and highly amusing debate with a very good friend. A big Thank you  😀   !!