I’ve been wanting to add sound to quite a few of my projects, and have always found it way too cumbersome, too expensive or too expensive to add sound to my installations / projects, so a little while ago, I decided to try and hack a cheap MP3 player ( purchased from a roadside vendor) and trigger it from my Arduino to play pre-recorded MP3 tracks in sequence.
Here’s a picture of the MP3 player I am talking about, and what it looks like when opened up :
How the MP3 player works :
The MP3 player has 5 buttons: Play/Pause, Next, Previous, Volume Up and Volume Down.
As shown in the image below, each button consists of two pads, an inner pad and an outer pad. There is a metallic contact like a dome, covering the two pads, but not making contact. When you press the button, the metallic dome touches both path simultaneously and causes them to “short”. A short lasting for about 70 milliseconds will cause the action associated with that button to trigger. Note that a “short” of a small duration will not cause any trigger, and one of very long duration will cause multiple triggers, so it is important to time the delay right.
Each of the 5 buttons therefore has two pads, which must be shorted to trigger the five actions available. However, note that the pads on all the buttons are not unique i.e. there aren’t 10 unique pads, but merely 4 unique pads, scattered in different unique combinations. These 4 pads lead to 4 pins on a 16 pin IC, which I have drawn in the illustration above. The pins used are 6,7,8 and 16. To begin hacking the MP3 player, we must first solder 4 wires, either from the pads or from the pin on the IC (I find the latter easier), and extend them into multiple pinouts, so we can use them later.
In the illustration above is a table, which is a mapping of the combinations of wires which must be shorted for each action. So, to cause the MP3 player to pause/ play, we must short the pads / wires linking to pin 7 and 8 on the MP3 IC.
When we touch the buttons, those actions are easy enough to trigger. The question is, how do we short two pins (of which none might be ground), so as to simulate the MP3 function ? The solution is simple, really, we use relays. A relay is nothing but a mechanical switch that flips one way when powered on, and flips back when powered off. This is because each relay (drawn in the illustration) has a coil that creates a magnetic field when powered on, which flips a switch mechanically. The “COM” terminal which is normally connected to the “NC” (normally closed) flips and makes a connection to “NO” (Normally Open) when powered on, and we can use this to short a wire connected to COM with a wire connected to NO. Thus, each relay will short _two_ pads when powered, and will correspond to one pin on the Arduino that will power it on.
So, we’ll use a digitalWrite call from an Arduino to switch “ON” the Relay coil, thereby causing the wires to short. There is a slight problem, though. Chances are, your relay won’t trigger with the 5V that the Arduino supplies on its digital pin, and you’ll need to raise it to a level of 9V or 12V to trigger the relay coil. So, we’ll need to a buffer in between, here I have used the ULN2003. The complete arrangement for one MP3 function is mentioned in the illustration above.
This should mainly cover how to go about hacking the hardware of an MP3 player to work with an Arduino Uno. However, to make things a little easier on the Arduino side, I also wrote a simple library that lets you control the MP3 player just by specifying the pins on the Arduino that are connected to each relay.
Here is the link to the Github for the MP3 player library : https://github.com/ankitdaf/MP3Player
In the call to MP3Player, you just need to specify in the brackets which pins are connected to the relays corresponding to (Play , Next, Previous, Volume Up, Volume Down ) in order, and you should be up and running in no time !
If you are using only one button, you might want to skip the ULN2003 and use a simple transistor as switch instead as shown here (http://makezine.com/projects/arduino-mp3-player-hack/), but if you are going to use more than one button that is not advisable, since one of the pins that are shorted go to ground of the Arduino, and if you use another button with a different pad going to ground, those two will continuously trigger, messing up with your flow and possibly messing up the player itself.
If you have any questions, you can write to me at firstname.lastname@example.org and I’ll be happy to help you out !
If you want to go get some Arduino supplies, you can get it from here : http://daflabs.com/
Cheers, until the next hack !